[1] Billy Hallowell, “‘Noah’ Movie’s Bible Controversy Leads Paramount to Embrace Explanatory Message’,” The Blaze, February 28, 2014.

“Amid ongoing controversy over the theological themes depicted in Darren Aronofsky’s upcoming film Noah,’ Paramount Pictures has decided to add an explanatory message’ to future marketing materials letting prospective viewers know that artistic license has been taken.'”

[2] Bill Keveney, “‘Cosmos’ returns to TV, with a big bang,” USA Today, March 12, 2014.

“New series is the spiritual and intellectual successor to Carl Sagan’s PBS original.”

“Here’s a thesis at the heart of Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey: Science is engaging and entertaining. An eclectic group that includes astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson, Family Guy creator Seth MacFarlane and Ann Druyan, who co-wrote the 1980 Cosmos: A Personal Voyage with her late husband, Carl Sagan, will put that theory to the test. A 13-part journey through the universe and beyond kicks off Sunday (9 p.m. ET/PT) on 10 networks, led by Fox and National Geographic Channel, with an introduction by President Obama.

” The goal is to convey why science matters to the person, to our society, to us as shepherds of this planet. It involves presenting science in ways that connect to you, so Cosmos can influence you not only intellectually but emotionally, with a celebration of wonder and awe,’ says Tyson. Science should be part of everybody’s life. The prerequisite is not that you become a scientist. It’s that at the end of the series, you will embrace science and recognize its role in who and what you are.;”

[3] “Bill Nye vs. Ken Ham Debate Simple Transcript,” Creation Museum, February 4, 2014.

“Legacy Hall at the Creation Museum, Petersburg, KY February 4, 2014, Moderated by Tom Foreman, CNN, Debate Topic: “Is Creation a viable model in today’s modern Scientific era?”

Quotes in this article without separate footnotes come from this preliminary transcript.

See online copy of the debate   and     [http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2014/02/04/hijacked-by-secularists-watch-bill-nye-and-ken-ham-clash-over-evolution-noahs-ark-and-the-earths-true-age-in-nearly-3-hour-debate/]

[4] “Reasonable Faith: Rational Evidences for Christ Jesus,” 

“Starting with the whole universe the size of an atom.

1.Time = 10-43 seconds,                        Temp = ?? degrees C

2.Time = 10-32 seconds,                        Temp = 1027 degrees C

3.Time = 10-6 seconds,                         Temp = 1013 degrees C

4.Time = 102 seconds,                          Temp = 108 degrees C

5.Time = 1013 seconds,                         Temp = 105 degrees C

6.Time = 3 * 1017 seconds,                  Temp = -2 * 102 degrees C

7.Time = 4.5 * 1018 seconds,               Temp = -2.7 *102 degrees C”

[5] Raymond v. Damadian, “Apparatus and method for detecting cancer in tissue,” US Patent #3,789,832, February 5, 1974.

There are 20 US patents issued to Dr. Raymond Damadian

See also: Dr. Patrick Treacy, “The Great Nobel Prize Controversy about the Discoverer of the MRI,”

[note to webmaster: the “&is” is essential to this web address-please test it]

“There is little doubt that the gradient field was the “key invention” that led to the MRI coming into widespread commercial use but not to recognise Dr Damadian’s contribution is akin to giving the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945 to Sir Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain alone for their work in the discovery of Penicillin and not recognising Sir Alexander Fleming’s seminal observation, which led to this miracle of medicine. In 1975, Howard Temin and David Baltimore were independently honoured for the discovery of reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that translates RNA back into DNA. Many viruses, notably H.I.V., employ reverse transcriptase when infecting animal cells. Like Fleming, Renato Dulbecco the third laureate took no part in the work itself but was given a Nobel Prize. In 1986, Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer received the physics prize for the scanning tunnelling electron microscope. However, they shared it with Ernst Ruska, who had invented the device’s remote ancestor, the first electron microscope. This means that predecessors have been included in Nobels several times and it is for this reason that I propose that we as doctors should protest to the Nobel Prize Committee that a great injustice was done to medicine and ultimately to their own organisation by not recognising Dr Damadian’s rightful contribution to this miracle of science.”

[6] From the transcript:

“Now, my Kentucky friends, I want you to consider this. Right now there is no place in the Commonwealth of Kentucky to get a degree in this kind of nuclear medicine, this kind of drugs associated with that. I hope you find that troubling. I hope you’re concerned about that. You want scientifically literate students in your commonwealth for a better tomorrow for everybody. You can — you can’t get this here; you have to go out of state.”

“One last thing, you may not know that in the U.S. Constitution, from the founding fathers, is the sentence: . . . to promote the progress of science and useful arts.’ Kentucky voters – voters who might be watching online in places like Texas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Kansas – please, you don’t want to raise a generation of science students who don’t understand how we know our place in the cosmos, our place in space, who don’t understand natural law.”

“My friends, suppose a science student from the Commonwealth of Kentucky pursues a career in science and finds out the answer to that deep question — where did we come from, what was before the big bang? To us, this is wonderful and charming and compelling. This is what makes us get up and go to work every day, is to try to solve the mysteries of the universe.”

[7] I would highly recommend rereading these two Ensign articles from 1998 on the flood referenced in this footnote.

Donald W. Parry, “The Flood and the Tower of Babel,” Ensign, January 1998.

Subtitle: “Because of the Prophet Joseph Smith, Latter-day Saints have additional knowledge that confirms the reality of these world-changing historical events.”

“Many of us have fond memories learning about Noah and his ark during our days at home and in Primary. Perhaps our parents and teachers held up a picture of Noah preaching to laughing and mocking people as he stood in front of the partially built ark, or perhaps they showed us a picture portraying the ark filled with animals standing on the deck as the great vessel rested in the water. Later, our Sunday School or seminary teachers added to our knowledge of this great man, his righteousness, his missionary work, and the revelations surrounding the building of the ark. As Latter-day Saints, we treasure this sacred, true account of one of God’s great prophets who lived so long ago.

“Not everyone throughout the modern world, however, accepts the story of Noah and the Flood. Many totally disbelieve the story, seeing it as a simple myth or fiction. Typical of some modern scholars, one author recently discounted the events of the Flood by using such terms as “implausible,” “unacceptable,” and “impossible”; he stated that believers who would hope to provide geologic or other evidence regarding the historicity of the Flood “can be given no assurance that their effort, however sustained, will be successful.


” Another author titled his book The Noah’s Ark Nonsense, revealing his disbelief that the Flood actually took place.

“Still other people accept parts of the Flood story, acknowledging that there may have been a local, charismatic preacher, such as Noah, and a localized flood that covered only a specific area of the world, such as the region of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers or perhaps even the whole of Mesopotamia. Yet these people do not believe in a worldwide or global flood.Both of these groups-those who totally deny the historicity of Noah and the Flood and those who accept parts of the story-are persuaded in their disbelief by the way they interpret modern science. They rely upon geological considerations and theories that postulate it would be impossible for a flood to cover earth’s highest mountains, that the geologic evidence (primarily in the fields of stratigraphy and sedimentation) does not indicate a worldwide flood occurred any time during the earth’s existence.

“There is a third group of people-those who accept the literal message of the Bible regarding Noah, the ark, and the Deluge. Latter-day Saints belong to this group. In spite of the world’s arguments against the historicity of the Flood, and despite the supposed lack of geologic evidence, we Latter-day Saints believe that Noah was an actual man, a prophet of God, who preached repentance and raised a voice of warning, built an ark, gathered his family and a host of animals onto the ark, and floated safely away as waters covered the entire earth. We are assured that these events actually occurred by the multiple testimonies of God’s prophets.”

RPMNote: Brother Parry is one of the scholars on the Dead Sea Scrolls project. He is well prepared to write this article. Knowing how difficult it is to publish such an article in the Ensign and the reviews and approvals that it doubtless went through gives supporting evidence to me that belief in a global flood is not a radical view in the Church. It is a mainstream interpretation.

Joseph B. Romney, “Noah, the Great Preacher of Righteousness,” Ensign, February 1998.

Subtitle: “Truth restored through the Prophet Joseph Smith confirms and clarifies the biblical account of this remarkable prophet.”

“Noah’s majestic importance as a major prophet of God is clearly noted in biblical text. He is, after all, the central figure in the account of a universal flood and was responsible for the continuation of humankind. Still, without the revelations of the Restoration we would miss so much more about Noah and his pivotal role both as a mortal and as a nonmortal.

“While speaking in 1839 to members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and some Seventies prior to their leaving for missionary service, the Prophet Joseph Smith said: Noah, who is Gabriel, … stands next in authority to Adam in the Priesthood; he was called of God to this office, and was the father of all living in his day, and to him was given the dominion. These men held keys first on earth, and then in heaven.'”

[8] Noah’s Ark: Working Replica of Noah’s Ark,” Schagen, Netherlands,

“Of course, it’s only a replica of the biblical Ark , built by Dutch Creationist Johan Huibers as a testament to his faith in the literal truth of the Bible.”

“The ark is 150 cubits long, 30 cubits high and 20 cubits wide. That’s two-thirds the length of a football field and as high as a three-story house. Life-size models of giraffes, elephants, lions, crocodiles, zebras, bison and other animals greet visitors as they arrive in the main hold. A contractor by trade, Huibers built the ark of cedar and pine –

“Biblical Scholars debate exactly what the wood used by Noah would have been. Huibers did the work mostly with his own hands, using modern tools and with occasional help from his son Roy. Construction began in May 2005. On the uncovered top deck – not quite ready in time for the opening – will come a petting zoo, with baby lambs and chickens, and goats, and one camel. Visitors on the first day were stunned. ‘It’s past comprehension, ‘ said Mary Louise Starosciak, who happened to be bicycling by with her husband while on vacation when they saw The ark looming over the local landscape. ‘I knew the story of Noah, but I had no idea the boat would have been so big.’ There is enough space near the keel for a 50-seat film theater where kids can watch a video that tells the story of Noah and his ark.

“Huibers said he hopes the project will renew interest in Christianity in the Netherlands , where church going has fallen dramatically in the past 50 years. ”If You Need Help, Ask God. If You Don’t, Thank God”… ‘Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life; and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever.’ Psalm 23:6″

[9] The tone of this paragraph is troubling as to what it means for freedom of religion. Nothing of the miraculous part of religious beliefs is respected by the increasingly powerful and atheistic scientific establishment. Instead of protection from King George III, who was also the head of the state Church of England, today we have hair splitting over “establishment of religion” that many believe clearly reduces or destroys freedom of religion.

Elder Dallin H. Oaks, “Preserving Religious Freedom,” Chapman University School of Law, Feb 4, 2011.

“I am here to speak of the state of religious freedom in the United States, why it seems to be diminishing, and what can be done about it.”

“The prohibition against an establishment of religion’ was intended to separate churches and government, to forbid a national church of the kind found in Europe. In the interest of time I will say no more about the establishment of religion, but only concentrate on the First Amendment’s direction that the United States shall have no law [prohibiting] the free exercise [of religion].’ For almost a century this guarantee of religious freedom has been understood as a limitation on state as well as federal power.”

[10] “Old Testament Prophets: Noah,” Ensign, February 2014.

“Centuries later, as an angel named Gabriel,7 I announced to the priest Zacharias that he would be the father of John the Baptist, and I appeared to Mary and told her that she would give birth to the Savior.”

Fact Box: Noah

Names: Noah, Gabriel

Birth date: about 1,056 years after Adam

Age at time of death: 950 years

Genealogy: son of Lamech, grandson of Methuselah, ninth generation after Adam

Mortal roles: preacher of righteousness before the Flood; savior of family and animals from the Flood; second father of the human race

Postmortal role: as Gabriel, he appeared to Daniel to teach him about the Second Coming; to Zacharias, the father of John the Baptist; and to Mary, the mother of Jesus

Ronald P. Millett, “In Defense of the Prophet Noah and the Great Flood,” Meridian Magazine, March 12, 2014.

Although I knew the flood is a controversial issue and to write about it can be a bit like deliberately flying into a hornet’s nest, it was still surprising to see the variety of comments and reactions to the article.


One that surprised me after several emails to one reader where I tried to explain my reasoning was this comment: “so let me make my demand clear: please withdraw your article from Meridian Magazine. It is only serving to sow unnecessary seeds of division among LDS people.” And, “as I said, it is really only the older, dying generation that believes this stuff to be literal.”

I am passionate about my view on the Great Flood. Part of my intent in writing the article was to emphasize how superlative this miracle is and that it is seems to be done “without a trace”-making it even more difficult to accept in our modern world. Bill Nye’s comments and arguments against the flood were very well reasoned. Jeff Bradshaw expressed well in his comment the importance of not demonizing any of the conflicting views about this great event. He said “I am sure that Bro.Millett would agree that none of us would want to imply that those who do not share our specific views on topics that are not fundamental to salvation (e.g., that do not affect our qualifications to be members in good standing nor our ability to hold a temple recommend) are necessarily skeptical of the scriptures or lack faith in God.”

Another motivation for writing the article on the flood is that I think that there is a continuum of miracles that God has performed and that if we do not accept certain huge miracles like the flood, we may be surprised at the interconnections to other miracles and basic beliefs resulting in a ripple or domino effect, losing faith in miracles that we really wanted to believe in. For example, look at the many miracles that are listed by Paul in Hebrews chapter 11. He talks about the flood in the same way as he talks about the exodus from Egypt or the conceiving of Isaac or the walls of Jericho coming down.

I, for one, would be very interested in a statistical study of the belief in miracles among members of the Church. Manna, in my opinion, is a bellwether kind of miracle that may indicate a pattern of belief in Old Testament miracles. The most basic belief in miracles, for me, would be belief in the Resurrection of Jesus Christ and the First Vision of Joseph Smith. Close behind that would be the sign of the birth of Christ in the Americas and the raising of Lazarus from the dead.

Here is where I see great hope as we seek to understand the Lord’s hand in the history of the world and the meaning of the scriptures. I so enjoyed President Uchtdorf’s talk in October 2013 general conference entitled “Come Join with us.” The characteristics of an active latter-day saint described by President Uchtdorf are a very high standard. If we are faithful with the attitude and efforts he discussed, I think that these doctrinal and scientific principles related to the flood and other Old Testament miracles will eventually become clear through the Holy Ghost if we strive to understand them. So if you can’t believe in the flood as a great miracle now, at least have the desire to believe if it really is true. Don’t be too hasty in declaring this miracle false or only figurative even though it seems ridiculous at the present time to many people.

[11] “How do we reconcile the Flood of Noah with scripture and Church teachings?” FairMormonAnswers, 2013

“Questions:

1.Modern scientific knowledge regarding the diversity of species, language and evidence of continuous human habitation does not support the Biblical story that a global flood wiped out most life as recently as 4,400 years ago.

2.It is claimed that LDS scriptures require Mormons to believe in a global flood, and that if LDS doctrine or leaders are fallible in their statements concerning the flood, then they must be wrong about other Church doctrines as well.

3.If Noah’s Flood was not global, how do we account for Joseph Smith’s claim that the Garden of Eden was located in Missouri?

4.Isn’t it true that before the flood all the continents were all one land mass, since the Bible says that the earth was “divided in the days of Peleg.”

“Answer:

Latter-day Saints believe that the prophet Noah existed, and that he was commanded to build an ark and save his family from a flood. A belief that this flood was global in nature is not a requirement for Latter-day Saints; traditionally, many earlier members and leaders endorsed the global flood views common in society and Christendom generally. The accumulation of additional scientific information have led some to conclude that a local flood – one limited to the area in which Noah lived – is the best explanation of the available data. People of either view can be members in good standing.”

“Basic teachings and beliefs regarding the Flood

“There existed a prophet named Noah.

Noah was commanded by the Lord to construct an ark.

Noah warned the people of the impending deluge.

The Flood was a literal event which did indeed occur.

Noah, his family and the animals he collected were saved from the deluge.

The Lord made a covenant with Noah and his descendants.”

RPMNote: The global flood is deemed impossible and a local flood is the solution. Then, we see no explanation of how a local flood could fit the other items on this list or make any sense. On that all important topic of a local flood, this article is silent as to any details. I see no credible reasoning in this article or anywhere else using the local flood argument where an ark full of animals would be required and catastrophic loss of life would necessarily occur to the extent described in section 138 requiring extensive work for the salvation of the dead from the flood. There is always higher ground for the animals and people to go to in a local flood.

The Black Sea flood of 5,600 BC, discussed in the next reference, raised the water level six to twelve inches per day-hardly enough to prevent animal and human life from escaping its waters. The total rise in the Black Sea water level was about 450 feet. No great turbulence from a wall of water, but still, nothing to require an ark or animals saved from the flood. The Black Sea flood is also way off in the Biblical chronology–7,600 years ago, say before the Garden of Eden.

The list above might be considered the key specifications from the history of Noah to help us evaluate analysis and proposed ways to interpret this history. With the ark to save Noah and the animal life being a key part of that specification, neither lake Missoula, making a wall of water hundreds of feet high over a couple of days, nor the Black Sea flood with slow waterline increases over several years would make any sense.

Another very important reference:

Daune E.Jeffery, “Noah’s Flood: Modern Scholarship and Mormon Traditions,” Sunstone, October 2004 .

Dr. Jeffery does go into detail in this article about what he thinks is the local flood. I do not think that his reasoning is convincing that this or any other local flood will fit the requirements in the history of Noah.


So he depends on oral traditions for the source of Genesis. The Book of Moses, however, disproves that oral tradition argument.

“Many of us have grown out of believing the story of Noah’s flood to be literally true. Now scientists

have pinpointed a large-scale deluge and a sudden population dispersion from the Black Sea area

around 5600 BC. Is it time for Latter-day Saints to reexamine the Flood as well?”

“Ryan and Pitman calculate that once the ocean broke across the Bosporus shelf, waters would have poured into the New Euxine basin at more than two hundred times the rates measured at current-day Niagara Falls. The Lake would have risen six to twelve inches per day throughout its basin. In many areas, people would have had to move at least a kilometer (about two thirds of a mile) per day, with children, animals and possessions, to keep ahead of the water.”

“THE ACADEMIC WORLD in general has concluded that the Noachian Flood is a legend, perhaps founded on some local event to which details have been added over time, or something possibly hatched up altogether. We would do well to remember that our ancestors used to sit in the evenings in community groups, or around open fires or the hearths in their homes, and tell stories-marvelous stories of the past, of great heroes and heroines, of wars

among the gods, of great catastrophes.”

RPMNote: Attributing the Biblical record to stories passed down by oral traditions as Duane Jeffery does in this quote runs into a very big obstacle, the Pearl of Great Price.The Book of Moses is a vision where Joseph Smith sees Moses being given a vision from the Lord that includes parts that we recognize from Genesis. No campfire stories. Recorded by Moses after he had the vision where he was quickened in the Spirit to discern every particle and every individual on the earth. No oral tradition storytelling drift and making up of variations of the history becoming the myth and legend-far different than it started out.

“Certainly a worldwide Flood would carry and deposit massive amounts of sediment. But explaining the fossil strata as deposits from the Flood is a luxury Latter-day Saints may not have. For instance, scripture makes clear that Adam blessed his posterity in a specific small valley before his death; other LDS scripture indicates very strongly that this event took place in Daviess County, Missouri, and that Adam will one day return there. Tradition further states that the very altar that Adam built upon leaving the Garden of Eden was still standing on top of the ground in Missouri in the 1830s. Clearly this topography and altar could not have survived a massive, planetary Flood. If we wish to maintain the altar story, one highly treasured in some quarters of Mormonism, we must face squarely that there was no worldwide Flood.”

RPMNote: No one even seems to consider that a God of miracles could manage the flood and its withdrawal of water to preserve not only Adam’s altar, but plant and animal life that would be buried under the extreme pressure of a world-wide flood and the moving of Noah from one continent to another. Their discussions of a local flood don’t really address the fact that the local flood cannot be logically tied to the Biblical story without making it an orally transmitted campfire tale. That the ark might be a type instead of the complete solution to saving animal life on earth doesn’t seem to be considered. A God who could manage billions of cubic kilometers of water and “leave no trace” could certainly preserve the right set of animals and plants for the post-flood era, even down to the fossils in the altar Adam used at the great conference at Adam-Ondi-Ahman.

Perhaps this is why only the young earth creation believers seem to be strongly supporting a global flood. They believe in a God who can do anything instantly out of nothing. We believe in a God who performs great miracles via natural laws. There are a few cases where by ignoring certain laws such as the law of justice God could cease to be God. But he will not cease to be God and is a God of miracles. If God, acting as a Great Engineer, can begin such a work as the great flood, surely He has the ability to finish it. 2 Nephi 27:20: “I am able to do mine own work.”

[12] “Galacial Lake Missoula and the Ice Age Floods,” Montana Natural History Center, 2005. See also:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Channeled_Scablands, and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missoula_Floods

     “The Channeled Scablands are a unique geologic erosion feature in the U.S. State of Washington. They were created by the cataclysmic Missoula Floods that swept periodically across eastern Washington and down the Colombia River Plateau during the Pleistocene epoch.”

Stev H. Ominski, “Age’s End,” Limited Edition Print, now available for purchase, 2007.    

     “Age’s End is an interpretive composition depicting one of many Ice Age floods, which occurred 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. The viewer’s vantage point is from the present day site of Crown Point, looking east, as flood waters arrive into the lower Columbia River Gorge.”

[13] “For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit: By which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison;

Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water.” (1 Peter 3:18-20)

Jacqueline S. Mitchell, “The Truth behind Noah’s Flood,” “Scientific American Frontiers,” PBS.

“In Into the Deep,’ underwater explorer Bob Ballard shares with Alan stories of his incredible oceanic adventures. Renowned for finding the wreck of the Titanic and discovering hydrothermal vents, Ballard is also interested in solving the mystery of Noah’s flood. Was this great biblical cataclysm in fact a real event that we can find traces of today? Ballard has led expeditions to the Black Sea searching for direct evidence of an ancient flood.”

“The story of Noah and the great flood is one that so permeates our culture that generations of geologists have devoted their lives to looking for evidence of a prehistoric worldwide flood. But it was not until the 1990’s that geologists William Ryan and Walter Pitman gathered clues pointing to an actual ancient flood in the Middle East about 7,500 years ago. Sediment core-samples the scientists took from the bottom of the Black Sea revealed sections of once-dry, sun-baked land.”

“Any people living on those plains at the time would have witnessed what must have seemed like the wrath of an angry god. Based on the still northern flowing undercurrents of what we call the Bosporus Straits, Ryan and Pitman estimate the water rushed northward through this channel with force many times greater than Niagara Falls.As the waters rose about six inches per day, human settlements would have been washed away or under hundreds of feet of water within a year or so.Traumatized refugees from the flood must have told their story to shocked listeners. Is this the story so many of us still tell our children today?”

“Ballard and his colleagues began mapping the floor of the Black Sea, looking for the once-fertile plains.


Going on Ryan and Pitman’s estimates that sea levels rose roughly 150 meters during the flood, Ballard and his colleagues searched for what would have been the ancient coastline of the freshwater lake.”

RPMNote: Six inches increase in water levels per day and a total of 450 feet higher water level at the end of the flood. That needs an ark? That needs animals to be saved in an ark? And this is the biggest local flood account in recent history that we know of. It is not the wall of water variety that would destroy the ark. However, it does not fit the historical narrative of the Great Flood in Genesis or modern revelation.

[14] “AND it came to pass that the Lord spake unto Moses, saying: Behold, I reveal unto you concerning this heaven, and this earth; write the words which I speak. I am the Beginning and the End, the Almighty God; by mine Only Begotten I created these things; yea, in the beginning I created the heaven, and the earth upon which thou standest.” (Moses 2:1)

[15] “Human Genetic Variation,” National Institutes of Health, National Human Genome Research Institute,

“How Much Genetic Variation Exists Among Humans?

Homo sapiens is a relatively young species and has not had as much time to accumulate genetic variation as have the vast majority of species on earth, most of which predate humans by enormous expanses of time. Nonetheless, there is considerable genetic variation in our species. The human genome comprises about 3 x 109 base pairs of DNA, and the extent of human genetic variation is such that no two humans, save identical twins, ever have been or will be genetically identical. Between any two humans, the amount of genetic variation-biochemical individuality-is about 0.1 percent. This means that about one base pair out of every 1,000 will be different between any two individuals. Any two (diploid) people have about 6 x 106 base pairs that are different, an important reason for the development of automated procedures to analyze genetic variation.”

[16] “Behold, this body, which ye now behold, is the body of my spirit; and man have I created after the body of my spirit; and even as I appear unto thee to be in the spirit will I appear unto my people in the flesh.” (Ether 3:16)